Affairs in the Territory of Utah remain very much as at the date of my last annual report. The army is inactive, and stands in the attitude of a menacing force towards a conquered and sullen people. I am satisfied that the pre-servation of right and justice, through the means of any ju-risprudence known or recognised by "the people of the Unit-ed States, is impossible in that Territory. It is governed, practically, by a system which is in total disregard of the laws or Constitution of the land. The laws of the Mormon church and the will of the hierarchy are alone potential there. Beyond a mere outward show of acquiescence in Federal authority they are as irresponsible to it as any fo-reign nation.
There is, in the present attitude of affairs, scarcely any necessity for the presence of troops in Utah, and they will be otherwise disposed of in the coming season. There are no complaints of Indian hostilities towards the Mormon people. All other Territories and people upon our vast fron-tiers suffer from Indian depredations, but the Mormon people enjoy an immunity from all their outrages. For the, protection of these people against Indians there is no neces-isity for the presence of a single soldier. Murders and rob-beries of the most atrocious character have been perpetrated in the Territory upon emigrants from the States journeying towards the Pacific, and in some of the most shocking in-stances by white men disguised as Indians. The general impression, so far as I have been able to ascertain it, amongst those having opportunity to know, is that these murders are the work of the Mormon people themselves, sanctioned, if not directed, by the authority of the Mormon Church.
I cannot commend in terms too high the wise prudence and officer-like conduct of the General commanding the army in Utah. The discipline of his command is admirable, and its efficiency is unsurpassed. Much has been done through the army under command of General Johnston to-wards improving the roads in Utah, and to give to the pub-lic a fuller knowledge of the condition and resources of the Territory. Capt. J. H. Simpson, of the topogaaphical en-gineers, has, during the past season, explored and opened two new routes from Camp Floyd to California, either of which is about 250 miles shorter than the old emigrant route by the way of Humboldt river, and far better for grass, wood, and water. Over both these routes he conducted a party of sixty-five men and a train of fourteen wagons, and, since his return to Camp Floyd, many emigrants with large herds of cattle have passed over the route by which he re-turned, which is the better of the two. Itineraries for both have been furnished to the public through the press in Cali-fornia and Utah. The saving in time of travel by these roads to emigrants for California is about, fifteen days, and for the mails about four. The saving in stock and draught cattle on these routes over those formerly travelled, owing to pure water and abundant grass, is estimated at twenty-five per cent. Captain Simpson has also, under the instruc-tions of General Johnston, found a new wagon road pass from the valley of the Great Salt Lake, by the way of the Timpa-nagos river valley and Des Chesnes fork of the Uinta river into the valley of Green river, which will shorten the route pursued by Colonel Loring from Camp Floyd to Santa Fe; probably as much as eighty miles ; and should a practicable : pass be found through the Rocky mountains, by the way of White river, through the middle part between the headwa-ters of the Arkansas and the Cache La Poudre, a tributary of the Platte, a wagon road will be obtained through the Pike's Peak gold region which will be considerably shorter to the States than any we now have.
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