THE GREAT SALT LAKE CITY.
Correspondence of the Western Christian Advocate. Early in April, 1847, one hundred and forty-three men, two women, and two children started out as pioneers from Council Bluffs, Iowa. These Mormons made an entire new road on the north side of the Platte, crossing Elk-horn to Fort Laramie ; they then took the Oregon tra
he same year they say the first man, Professor Otson Pratt, entered this valley. On the 23d of July the first camp moved into and halted at what now is called the centre of the city. In the afternoon of the same day they had three ploughs and one harrow at work.
At two o'clock P. M. of the same day they commenced building the first dam for irrigation. The next day, Satur-day, the 24th, they planted five acres of potatoes. On the 28th of the same month, what they style the quorum of the Twelve Apostles assembled and laid off a city as follows : Block of ten acres each, eight lots to the block, an acre and a quarter in each lot; the streets eight rods wide, the side-walks twenty feet wide; the side-walks to be beautifully shaded ; the blocks to be surrounded by a purling brook, issu-ing from the mountains ; every house to be built twenty feet from the front fence. No two houses front each other ; stand-ing in his own door, every man may not look into his neigh-bor's door, but into his neighbor's garden. They have four public squares, which are hereafter to be adorned with trees from the four quarters of the globe, and supplied with foun-tains of water.
On the temple square they intend to have a garden that will cost at least $100,000 at the commencement. Their missionaries have already made arrangements in the Eastern States, in Great Britain, France, Italy, Denmark, the Ger-manic States, and in the Islands of the sea, to gather the choicest seeds and fruits, and every thing that can beautify and adorn the garden. At first the city was laid off to con-tain one hundred and thirty- five blocks. Since then an addi-tion of sixty-five blocks has been made on the east, and sixty on the west. They have laid off one mile square on the east of the city for a University. It will not be two years until next October since the first house was built in this city, and it now numbers nine thousand. They already have con-venient houses built of dolies—dried brick—and most of the luxuries of life. They expect an emigration of at least 10,000 of their own people this year.
The only method of cultivation is by irrigation, from what they call "City Creek." Just as this creek opens in the valley from the snow-capped mountains it divides into two main branches, which afterwards subdivide. This water, from the mountains to the temple block, has an average fall of nine inches in a rod for a distance of more than ten miles, with a greater fall the further you advance into the mountains. At one mile and a third from the city is a warm sulphur spring, which possesses great cleansing and purifying properties, and which, it is affirmed, cures most diseases of this climate. About a mile and a half further is a hot sulphur spring. On the south side of the valley is a hot spring of pure water. The water of this spring is twenty-nine feet and three inches deep.
The city is located about twenty-two miles southeast of the great Salt Lake. The lake is considered more saline than the ocean, three gallons of the water making one gallon of the purest, whitest, finest salt. The valley is about thirty miles by twenty-two, joining to a valley of about fifty miles by eight in width. From the centre north to the south these two valleys are studded with settlers, numbering from fifteen to twenty thousand. The Lieutenant-Engineer, Mr. Gunni-son, estimates these valleys—having explored them—as ca-pable of supporting a population of from one and a half to two millions.
On the south of this valley lie the Utah valley and lake about fifty miles from this city. The name of their city is Provo, on the south side of the Provo river. The lake is pure water, eight miles by four, abounding with fish. About one hundred miles south of this they have established a settlement of about one hundred and fifty families. This valley is call-ed San Pete. Here there are many ruins covered with hiero-glyphics. One place in particular is called by the Indians "God's Temple." Here also many remains of ancient pot-tery, both glazed and unglazed, are found in great abundance; and here, also, is a mountain of pure rock salt and an abun-dance of bituminous coal.
During five months of the year there can be no communi-cation with the north, east, or west, the mountains being rendered impassable by the snow. This city is situated about forty and a half degrees north latitude, and one hundred and eleven degrees longitude west of Greenwich.
The productiveness of the soil is astonishing. We are here in the midst of their harvest, and never have we seen such wheat. We will give you one out of many authen-tic accounts. M. Holliday, from the south of this place, raised upwards of one hundred and eighty-five bushels of wheat from one bushel of the seed, and three hundred bushels of potatoes from one bushel of the seed.
This valley is regarded as one of the healthiest portions of the globe ; the air is certainly the purest I ever breathed. Its altitude is four thousand and three hundred feet above the level of the sea ; and some of the mountains on the east of the valley are more than a mile and a quarter high, and are cov-ered with perpetual snow; while in the valley the thermome-ter frequently rises above one hundred degrees.
So much for this city and valley. As to the moral and other aspects of this people, I have not at present time or space to write any thing. It is due to them to say that I have not seen any thing vicious since my arrival. They are very kind and hospitable to emigrants. The emigrants drop them a thousand commodities for a small consideration, as they change from the train to the packing method of accomplishing the re-mainder of their journey ; while they in turn are greatly ac-commodated in obtaining supplies and refreshments at this lit-tle more than half-way house over plains and deserts.
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