From the Upper Missouri—The Mormons.
The St. Louis People's Organ has received two numbers—one for February 21 and the other for March 7—of the Frontier Guardian, a paper published semi-monthly at Kanesville,' in Iowa, on the Missouri River, near Council Bluff's, in latitude 42. Kanesville is the same as the Mormons' ' Winter Quarter;’ and the jour-nal is a Mormon paper.
The Winter in that region has been very severe, and nearly four feet of snow has fallen. Up to Feb. 18, there had been thirty-one days on which the mercury had fallen to or below zero ! On the 11th of December it fell to twenty degrees below zero, and was repeatedly down to from 8 to 14. Good sleighing lasted for three months. Late last month, the snow was two feet on a level. The Guardian of the 21st ult. says :
Some hunters have just come down from Fort Ver-million, about one hundred and fifty miles from here, and they report the snow much deeper there than here. They say that many Indians in that region are in a state of starvation on account of the very deep snow pre-venting them from getting out to hunt and kill game. Vague reports from the mountains say that the snow is beyond all calculation. The Omahas have lost nearly, if not quite all their horses. They are in great priva-tion and suffering, and have been obliged to kill their dogs for food.
It is apprehended that the weather at the Salt Lake —from the superior elevation of its site—has been hard upon the settlers in that vicinity, and compelled them to consume their surplus stock of grain. The Guar-dian advises all Mormons who are going thither to car-ry a supply of provisions to last them some time after they arrive there ; and to take out milch cows.
The Guardian says that in consequence of the severi-ty of the Winter, many farmers in Missouri have lost the greater part of their stock hogs. Many cattle are dying from the same cause and for want of food. Corn and fodder are becoming very scarce. There has been very little stock in Pottawatomie County that has died as yet with the exception of the Government cattle on the rushes, some fifty miles above this place. Many of them are dying of cold and hunger. Whoever is re-sponsible to the Government for these cattle, would do well to look after them in our opinion. Work oxen will undoubtedly be high here in the Spring, and the demand for them great. Everybody is going to digging gold.
The Guardian gives unerring indications that the Mormons are full of courage and hope at this time —" Kanesville"—on the Upper Missouri—though popu-lous and surrounded by farms, is a mere stopping-place—an inn by the wayside, for the temporary refresh-ment of the faithful, on their way to the " Great Basin." The plan seems to be that those who have gone thither in advance shall move forward, after disposing of their fixed property there to the emigration which follows, and so on successively, as fresh companies shall arrive there year after year. The scheme of emigration to the Salt Lake for the present year is briefly detailed in the following statement, which we find in the Guardian:
It is intended for companies to start from this point, to emigrate to the Great Valley of the Salt Lake so soon as grass is sufficiently grown. Whenever a company of fifty wagons have assembled at the camping-ground on this side of the river near this place, they will forthwith be organized and start on their journey. This number can travel with much more ease, comfort and speed than any greater number. Our experience has proved this to us. The men and boys that will naturally go with fifty wagons, will be quite sufficient to protect themselves on the journey against the Indians. If any are deficient in this respect, we will furnish every com-pany with what they may lack, provided the captain and principal men of each company will become re-sponsible for the arms and deliver them safely to the High Council in the Valley—as there is quite a lot of arms here that belong there, and we wish to forward them on. The organization of companies will be strictly military, and every man should be amply provided with arms and ammunition adequate to any and every exigency. Our experience last year with the Omaha Indians shows the importance of a rigid observance of the above.
The bill of particulars, embracing provisions and other articles to be taken, will appear in the Guardian in due time. Every wagon, before starting, will be ex-amined to see if it contains the requisite amount of pro-visions, utensils and means of defense. If they are de-ficient in these, they will not be allowed to cross the river to proceed with our companies.
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