Correspondence of the Register.
ST. LOUIS, NOV. 12, 1857.
The Utah expedition is likely to prove an entire failure and cause more suffering, if not star-vation, than any expedition ever before fitted out by our Government. The last advices represented I the van-guard on the plains, with seven inches of snow, corn enough for thirty days, no forage, and on half allowance; while the Mormons have at-tacked and destroyed three trains of seventy-five wagons containing the provisions of the expedition. These wagons were some seventy miles in the rear of the advanced guard. The report is that the troops will go into winter quarters, and thus not reach Salt Lake until Spring; but it is a question of great import if they have provisions enough to sustain life through a long winter on the plains. Were it not for the known and tried energy and ex-perience of Col. Johnston and his subordinate offi-cers we might fear that the whole party would miserably perish; but all that brave and compe-tent men can do will be done to bring this expedi-tion to a favorable issue. The error lies in not sending the expedition forward early enough to reach Salt Lake before the approach of winter. Old travellers on the plains assure me that it was absolute folly to make the attempt at so late a pe-riod as this expedition started.
If we can credit the accounts received from Utah and really believe that Brigham Young intends to show fight, as the destruction of the trains would indicate, it is the height of folly to send so small a detachment of men. Gentlemen who have resi-ded in Utah, and others who have recently passed through there, tell me that, as surely as the troops arrive there, just so surely will they meet with armed resistance—and the Mormons are well trained in the art of war, have extensive prepara-tions for defence, are supplied with provisions, and ammunition and arms sufficient for a long and Vigorous defence. They can probably furnish from 25,000 to 35,000 fighting men;—of what avail are a few hundred half starved, travel worn soldiers, driv-en across the plains at a rate of speed destructive alike to man and beast! The Administration have not given sufficient attention to this subject until the season has shut down upon further operations. The troops quartered upon Kanzas during the long Summer months, to watch "traitors" at Lawrence and to vote at Kickapoo, ought to have been in-creased to 10,000 men, and at an early day have been put en route for Utah under Gen. Harney. It may be that the War Department is correct in its action, but I have yet to find a man, familiar with crossing the plains and with the Mormons, who approves of its course.
The Constitutional Convention of the Territory of Kanzas, elected by some 1700 legal voters, were to have finished their arduous labors on the 10th and adjourn. Late advices report the Convention as divided on the Slavery question. This surely is a misfortune; they were elected for a specific pur-pose and that purpose they are bound to accom-plish or be false to their constituents. They must make Kansas a Slave State. This was the only question before the people at the June election, the only subject discussed by their public speakers, and the only thing this convention had to do. I have the pleasure of a personal acquaintance with several members of the Convention and they ac-knowledge this to be the paramount question. Surely there must be "something rotten in Den-mark" if they fail in their—and they will fail.
The party who are to locate the over land mail route to the Pacific are to leave here next week. They go from here to Springfield, Missouri, thence to Preston on the Arkansas river, thence to Fort Smith on the Red river, thence to the Rio Grande at or near Fort Fillmore, thence to Fort Yuma, where they will meet the party from San Francis-co. Fort Yuma is 1700 miles from this city by the proposed route. The party is in charge of Dr. Southwick, one of the contractors, who is an old traveller over the plains, having crossed them at different points a number of times. He tells me that after leaving Fort Smith one may travel near 1100 miles without seeing a tree. Another party are to leave Memphis at the same time and meet at Fort Smith. In one year from now we shall have a weekly mail to the Pacific. Dr. South-wick expresses big determination to locate the route, take the first mail through, and then never cross the plains again till the Pacific Rail Road is completed.
Since the passage of an act by our Legislature legalizing the suspension of our Banks, there has been a decidedly better feeling the business cir-cles. Specie is not scarce, and currency is in de-mand, at from 8 to 10 per cent discount on Illinois and Wisconsin; for Indiana, Ohio, and Kentucky about 5 per cent; and from 2 to 3 per cent for Eastern. Eastern exchange can be had for 1/2 per cent premium for gold, which is a decided improve-ment.
Our Levee is being covered with produce and merchandise generally; merchants have a more cheerful look; faces are not as much elongated as a month ago; the anxious inquiry of "anything over" is not heard as often at the street corners; and on Change one feels that the crisis is over, for tables are covered with samples, a purchaser easily found, and prices are looking up.
The Chicago papers report a similar state of things in that city, with very large exportations of grain. The West is full of grain—it only needs to be "disgorged" and the wheels of trade will move on.
The city of Saint Paul seems to be still under the cloud, and its prospect for a revival this sea-son is gone; for within ten days she will be shut out from the world and "the rest of mankind."; There is now maturing, in St. Paul, Eastern notes and drafts to the amount of some two millions, with some $600,000 already under protest. This is very encouraging to Eastern merchants who rely upon such debtors to meet their own payments. But a protest, in these times, is only an extension without leave. When the rivers open in the Spring the West will pour into the lap of the East a flood of produce never before equalled. The "good time" is bound to come. Nov. 13.
A gentleman just arrived from Lecompton in-forms me that the Constitutional Convention ad-journed on Saturday last, and decided not to sub-mit the Constitution to the people. The new Con-stitution is strongly pro-slavery and its makers rely upon the conservatism of a Democratic Con-gress to acknowledge its validity. A clause is, however, to be submitted to the people, either for or against slavery, but every voter must first make oath to support the new Constitution in all its pro-visions, which amounts to a support of a Constitu-tion legalizing slavery. If the people vote against slavery, they first make oath to a Constitution re-cognizing and supporting the very institution against which they vote.
This, then, is the result of the labors of this Con-vention, and they have been true to their constitu-ents. After the adjournment, the Convention were all placed in a group, and were daguerreotyped for the benefit of future generations. The majority of the Democratic party in Kanzas support Gov. Walker, and are to hold a Convention in a few days for the purpose of endorsing his course. The end of the Kanzas difficulties is by no means reached. The probability is that the Legislature will investigate and throw out the Leavenworth County returns, and thus have a two thirds majority in both houses. The Pro Slavery party will then have but one Council man and eight members of the Assembly. A correspondent of the Chicago Tribune says the Legislature will at once repeal all the so called bogus laws, vote to send the Topeka Constitution to Congress, and then adjourn sine die, leaving Kanzas without a code of laws. This policy may suit the latitude of Quindaro and Law-rence, but will not meet with favor from seven eighths of the Free State voters. A new Constitu-tion must be adopted. The Topeka affair is and must be a "dead horse."
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