„ A VISIT TO MUYQO.
The Ancient llity of the Saiats anrt its — Modern Remains— Vine Culture in ^ anvoo— The Mormon Temple— The Widows of Joe Smith assd Joe Smith, Jr.
[ From the Carthage BepnblJcan.] NAUVOO IN 1846.
In 1846, the writer of this article— then a mere boy, but with recollection of those e vents but little impaired— visited Nauvoo, in this county, then a city of over 16,000 inhabitants. The period of that visit is doubtless fresh in the memory of thousands now living who passed through the shifting scones of the great " Mormon war. 1' It was at the time when the last of the Mormon inhabitants of the city and county had fled across the rive? at the ap- proach of the thousands ofanned citizens of this and adjoining counties, who for years had offered in person and property from the un- lawful raids of bands of men and of individu- als, claiming, that their murders and assassins and theft were by order of Divine revelation. That the unparalleled atrocities thus commit- ted upon citizens were by Mormons, is a ques- tion that we do not pretend to discuss. It, is a question about which we have no knowledge, except through opinions and prejudices much softened by the lapse of time.
At ihe period of our visit in that year, the great Mormon Temple was as near its comple- tion^ it ever attained; finished, however, in all its grand proportions of size and hight. The basement hall, in which was situated the baptismal font— itself a miracle of art and beauty, with its appointments of life- sized oxen in purest marble, the marble basin and elaborate railings— the preparation and recep- tion looms; the immense audience chamber above, with its pews and changing backs, its immense altars and oratories, its gorgeous tapestry and motteta in gold and saver, its ponderous chandelier?, and the innumerable columns and frescocs that evcry- wliere be- wildered the eye with their gorgeous beauty. Of all these appointments we have ouch a vivid recollection that it seems but the re- hearsal of a last night's pleasant'dream. We were but a boy then, and venturesome. Wo could not do it now— but then we climbed to the top of that vast dome, and planting our feet around the lofty rod which supported tho broLze angel, we viewed a sccne of magnifi- cence, vast and varied in its scope— tho im- merse river half circling tho beautiful city, the towns and villages that dotted its shores for miles in either direction, the tasteful farms that stretched their uninterrupted lines of hedge and fence into the misty distance, and the grim cannon and the men who guarded them shrunken into pop- guns and pigmies so far below our feet Such is our recollection of the great city and its proud temple in 1846.
NAUVOO IN 1864.
On Friday, the 12th fnst., we again visited Nauvoo. A want of space must forbid indul- gence in tho overpowering reflections that crowded our mind3 in contemplating the vast- ness of ( he changes that had occurred in the period of eighteen years; it is enough to say that the 16,000 inhabitants that then crowded the beautiful city and its embowered environs are gone; one half to two- third3 of the dwell- ings that constituted the homes and the scenes of industry of that peculiar sect of people are either in ruins or have been transferred to other localities. Nevertheless, Nauvoo is a beautiful city still, vast in extent, and peopled by three thousand as industrious people as ever gave vitality to enterprise.
Many remains of Mormon industry still re- main, sad mementoes of the past. Centrally through the city, en a line running nearly north and south, and following the base of the steep bluff which divides the upper from the lower city, is tho remains of a deep, wide exca- vation or ditch, which Was intended by Smith as a canal, leading from the river on the R<? rtjif and intersecting with it at its curve on the south side. This ditch, which was intended to have been nearly straight, would have been two miles long, intersecting the base of the crescent which tho Mississippi here forms around the city— leaving all that part of the city comprehended in " the flat" on a sort of island. This stream of water, thus « 8* ® rted from the parent flood, would havo oupplied smaller streams intersecting it and running through other States westward. The peculi- arity of the soil— its pronenees to wash, & c.— has since demonstrated that such an enter- prise, possibly, combining utility with the or- namental, would have proved a source of in- credible expense to its projectors for repairs. For hundreds of yards, however, the canal seems to have been walled on its western slope— possibly in view of the tendency to wash.
There are but few houses in the city that are not of Mormon construction; and" many of them are fine buildings; although the vast majority of dwellings erected in the time of Mermen power were of the flim> iest descrip- tion Hundreds of them have fallen through successive storms, and their material taken to build - other and more substantial edifices. Among the best of the Mormon buildings now remaining are the Masonic Hall, the •' Lord's Stone House." the " Mansion," now kept as a hotel by Major L. G. Bidamon, and a number of dwellings which belonged to lead: ing personages in the church, business houses, & c. At the foot of Main street, and just at the river bsnk, Smith had commenced the erection of a large and magnificent hotel, the walls of which, for one story, are in good preservation. The basement,' one hundred feet long by fifty in depth, is of stone, cut and finished in the best style of workmanship The story above the baaement . is constructed of the finest pressed br ok, with marble steps and caps. Some of the interior walls have been taken down and the brick sold by Smith's heirs. The walls remaining are as perfect as the day the work ceased on them, at Smith's death. Not another brick should be taken from tho walls, however, because the day is not far distant when the necessities of a fine city— such as Nauvoo will become— will de- mand a hotel of the magnitude contemplated by Smith's far seeing judgment.
HISTORY Oi' THE TEMPLE— ITS REMAINS.
From Dr. J F, Weld, a resident of Nauvoo since 1839, and who was intimately acquainted with the main incidents of the rise and fall of Mcrmondom in that vicinity, we gather the following facts in relation to the building of the temple: The plans and stylo of architec ture of that building Smith claimed to have received by revelation from God; although subsequently the plans were materially altered from the original draft, whether by revelation or not we are not informed. The temple was commenced in 1841, with, the laying of the corner- stone and impressive ceremonies, at- tended by a vast multitude of people. To its erection the whole people of the Mormon church gave their enthusiastic aid— all being required to give a tenth of their incomes or la- bor. In 1845, two years after the death of Sm ith, the temple was finished and dedicated. The account of its size, hight and general ap- pearance in 1846, we find in the " Fulton Ga zette/' then published by the writer, which is as follows :
" Tbo temple is built wholly of stone pro- cured from quart ies near the city. This stone is of the best description, firm in texture, beau- tiM to the eye, and e'usceptible of a fine fin- ish. I am not acquainted with architectural terms, and hence east not say in what style the temple is built; but were ' it not for its tow- esr md bolfry, and spme attempts at modern ornamentation, I should think if was pun ly GiccLm, In me, the main building £ s J80 feet k> ng by 80 feet wide, and probably 80 feet in'iiigtit. ^ The tower and belfry reatsii above ( ste « main building some eighty'or a hundred fcss*; but of that I could gain no certain kwwledge; although I should think the en- tiro hight of the temple from baas stone to ball can not be less than 180 feet."
The Nauvoo Neighbor, of the date © f July 30, 1845, a copy # o? which Dr, Weed has in good preservation', has an article on tho sub- j: efc of the temple, from which we gather tbo night ? oi that building, but not its other- di- mensions •. From caves to fop of attic atoiy, foot..,.,„..„ tew;
Tower.,,..,.. .„,.......„..„ VA.
B « tfry ......... 20
Clock SfCtSoj:.. ii
Observatory .......................................................... is
Pome „„.„...„,...,„ I3> 6
Bail and rod ,....„...,„ *
Add to this tho hight of main building to eaves, ^ hich, we think, judging from the hight of the south- west ruin now standing, could not be lees than ' 70 feet, . ws have the whole
hight of the temple— 1G£ IK feet The cost of
the ti mple was estimated at $ 800,000.
In 1849 the temple was destroyed by fire, supposed to be the work of an ineradiarj'-. On the 21th of May, 1850, the north wall fell in by force of wind, shaking the city aa by an earth quake. The remaining walls. fall on subsequent occasion?, leaving only tho south- west corner standing, as we saw it during oar rccs- nt visit. The site of the temple and its ruins are now the property of Mr. John . Dors- Biff, of that city, who," as " he informs us, will remove the balance of the stone— the remain- ing comer included — at an early day, and convert the ground into a vineyard..
Incidentally, we remark, that in 1849- 80, a body of French socialists calling themselves " Icarians" purchased the temple site and ad- joining property, and for six or seven years attempted to establish their colony on the ex- ploded system of " communism" or " social- ism"— a theory we think once strongly advo- cated by Horace Greeley, but by him now cor demned as impracticable for all uses ex- cept tboso of libertinism and infidelity. The Icarian Colony was broken up in 1857, and its members scattered throughout - this and ad- joining counties. While in Nauvoo, this body of people erected several fine buildings from the stone of which the temple had been built.
Much of the exterior ornamentation of the temple, which remained uninjured by fire, ha3 be en carried away or defaced by curiosity- seekers. There are several fine specimens, Lowever, remaining in tho possession of indi- vifinals in Nauvoo. Over the entrance to one of the numerous wine- cellars which abound in that vicinity is the image of the sun in relief which crowned the top of one of the exterior columns of the temple.
MORMONS IN NAUVOO.
The lapse of time has softened much of the prejudice of the people against Motmoniam, anc! it is possible that- a majority of that sect have abandoned many of the peculiar dog- mas, in faith and practice, that made them the aversion and dread of more liberal minded people. Many Mormons have returned to this county, taking up their abode as quiet, orderly, and industrious citizens, and who are generally esteemed and respected by their immediate neighbors. There are some hun- dred or more families of Mormons, residents in Nauvoo and vicinity, who adhere to their faith, and to Joseph Smith, the eldest son of the prophet. " Young Jo," as he is called, re- sides in a modest cottage on the bank of the river, but a few rods from the " Mansion* House." He is a quiet, unassuming man, en- dowed with no great brilliancy of mind, but rather above the ordinary standard of men in good, honest, common ' sense. Mr. Smith is rfgarded by many thousands of Mormons as the legitimate apostolic successor of his father; and there is now quietly gathering around him a numerous congregation, who attend his preaching and seek his counsel and guidance.
Smith's widow, now the wife of Major L. C. Bidamon, is still presiding over the domes- tic appointments of the Mansion House, as in her first husband's life time. Mrs. B. has, doubtless, the most eventful history of any lady now living, and yet through all the vicis- situdes that, have followed her, in the prosper- ity and troubles incident to the rise and fall of Mormonism, and the circumstances surround- ing her first husband's violent death, her form and features are but lightly touched by the finger of time, and she is yet a hale, pleasant lady, kindly, hospitable and unassuming.
The soil in and adjacent to Nauvoo has been discovered to be finely adapted to grape cul- ture, and within five years what had been commenced as an experiment has become an immense interest. A large number of persons are now reaping a rich competency— some of them fortune/:— who five years ago had no in- come from other pursuits, In November last a tract of land embracing near two hundred acres, and lying on the north side of Nauvoo, wss sold at auction at an average of $ 75 to $ 100 per acre, in one, two and three- acre iota for vineyard purposes. Most of that body of land lias been put in order for the spring sotting. The num- ber of acres bearing grapes is almost 180; those set last summer about 160 to 200 more; and we are told that fully 200 acres more will be planted this spring. The grape- growera of Nauvoo realized from their loat cummer s crop of wine $ 75,000, and many of them cut their vinos closer than usual, in the view of adding to quality rather than to quantity. The cost of trenching, getting and staking an acre of grapes will not exceed $ 125. The third year's growth will generally produce grapes for 400 gallons of wine, which at present prices will average $ 1 75 to $ 2 per gallon— leaving from necessary expenses of expressing, cooperage and bottling, a profit of almost $ 600.
Numbers of the largest wine- growers have spacious cellars, built in the most substantial manner of stone. That of John Bauer, Esq., is, perhaps, the largest, being forty- five feet by twenty. Mr. B. has in cultivation three and a half acres of vines, which in 1862 yield- ed him 13.000 gallons of excellent wina. Last Tear, in consequence of close cutting and some blight, bis yield did rot exceed 3,000 gallons. His wine averages $ 2 por gallon at whole- sale, and is greatly in demand. Mr. Bauer also manufactures a very superior quality of brandy from the lees and pumice of grapes, and which also has a ready sale at $ 8 per gal- lon.
Mr. August B'eger has in cultivation two acres of grapes, which last year yielded 900 gallons'of wine. His cellar, newly erected, is nearly or quite as large as that of Mr. Baner. He also manufactures brandy, having excel- lent facilities.
There are other extensive vineyards and cellars, belonging to Messrs. Siller, Schneider, Rheinberger, Leopard, and others, whose names we failed to get.' The number of acres cultivated by them respectfully will average from two to Mr.
Two miles south of Nauvoo, and lying im- mediately on the bluff overlooking the Mis- sissippi, is the country seat and vineyard of A. Be rton, E- q, a gentleman of education and refinement, and possessing wealth and industry sufficient to. carry out his tasteful ideas of the useful and ornamental. The resi- dence and grounds of Mr. Berton are sub- stantial as well as ornamental, and nestled among the embowered hills, mu3t present a view of unusual loveliness from the river and opposite shores. Adjoining his resi- de nee on the south side is nis vineyard, con- sisting of ten acres, and all in the highest state of cultivation. Mr. B.' s grape culture is conducted in the most scientific manner, with a view to the quality of products rather than quantity. In 1862 his yield was only, 1,500 gallons; last year still less, he having cut his vineB very close with a view to induc- ing' hardihood of growth and firmness in the fruit. Mr. Berton's cellar is one - of the best in the vicinity of Nauvoo, being forty- four by tw enty- two feet in size, and buiit far enough below ground to render it available for all purposes of a first class wine- cellar. 1' n this cellar Mr. B. has twelve or fourteen casks of 750 gallons capacity, a majority of them full of the best wine manufactured. In other catks in this cellar are liquors of various de- scriptions, as pure and choice in flavor as we ha ve ever seen, or tasted.
" Wo found Mr. Bertorloneof the most genial, whole- souled gf- ntlemen it was ever our pleas- ure' to meet. His hospitality is as large as his heart, pad both fill all out of doors " and in- doors, because his bouse> is thrown open freely to visitors and his bounty pressed upon tltem at all limes,
BUSINESS AT NAUVOO.
There are two excellent and extensive brew- fries in Nauvoo, owned respectively oy Messrs. Schebfc and Haansm& n, both of them doing a large amount of business.
In other branches of business the eity seems to be slowly recovering from the troubles that have beset it. The vast extent of territory on which the city is built renders it difficult for one unacquainted with its facilities and loca- tion to understand at a glance the magnitude of its business
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