Tfce Moostrous Crime Loag Ago CaEimitt€ 3l at Mountain Meadows.
lore of the Facts of that Crowning Infamy of Hormonism.
ARA Ie tea'view wltfe Colonel Uasas ® , © se of fla © leaders*
The Butchered Farty Numbered a Hundred a& dl Thirty- Oae.
A St- Louis Wife- Killer Sentenced to
Miscellaneous Criminal Record,
THE MOUNTAIN MEADOW MASSACRE*
[ Special Correspondence. 3
BEAVER CITY, Southern Utah, April 6, 1875.— Thia memorabie Mountain Meadows massacre committed Sept. 7, 1857, more than 17 years ago. Much has been said and written coDeem- ing it, and a greats deal more, by far, remains unsaid and ua written and which the world will never know, unless some of those now charged with its commission turn state's evidence on trial and reveal the shocking truths. In this hardly probable event, what ia now gener- ally believed to lie the history of the case, would be confirmed a3 facts by living and unimpeachable evidence. Maj. John D. Lee, the man who led the slaughter, and who is novT ia chains awaiting trial, may possibly be tli9 man who will reveal the true facts and lay the blame whCi-' e it more properly belongs— Brigham Young, the" then governor of the territory, and the head of tiTf- church ; hi3 two councillors, Heber C. Kimball and Geo. A. Smith ; Daniel EL Welis, " lieuten- ant general" commartding the Nauvoo legion ; and the " twelve apostles," in whose hands Maj. Lee, Col. Dame, Lieut. CoL Haight, and the other participants were mere instruments, acting under instructions and inspired by their fanatical eeal for the church. Their devotion to, or rather fear of, the church, remains un- changed, with the exception of Lee, who has been " cut off," and is branded by all good Mor- mons as an apostate. Notwithstanding his apos- tacy, the church has nob entirely forgotten him, but as a recognition for his services which re- sulted in his present trouble, has generously em- ployed counsel to defend him. Were it not for fear of the 14 destroying angels/' who would pursua au enemy of the church to the ends of the earth, or death, doubtless some of those who are now hiding- iu the mountain recesses from an avenging justice would surrender them- selves to the authorities, confess their guilt, and free their remorse- stricken consciences of their terrible burdens. But ia Mormondon there is a " higher law" than the const itutior, or the laws thereunder— it is that of the " blood atone- ment," and a member who betrays his terrible oaths and sacred vows never feels at rest, and sooner or later his lifo is forfeited to the vengeance of the church and as a punishment, for his betrayal of its secrets. Evidently, this blood- atoning doctrine was founded on and sug- gested by the teachings of the murderous " Bed Gross" and other orders that existed throughout Italy in the dark days of superstition and the Borgias.
THE GAUSS OS* THE MASSACRE A WOMAN.
Indirectly, if not directly, a woman was the cause of the massacre. Parley P. Pratt, one of the " twelve Apostles" was sens on a mission to Arkansas, soou after the settlement of Salt Lake, in 1847, and while there preaching his peculiar doctrines, he converted a Mrs. Gloanor McLean, who eloped with him to this city. Becoming dissatisfied and mourning the loss of her chil- dren, she fiually persuaded Pratt io return to her dishonored home iu Arkansas, and bring them to her. " President" Young immediately sent the " apostle" on another mission to that state. He soon abducted ihe three children from their sorrow- stricken father, aad brought them to their mother and his wife at Salt Lake. His wife and children stolen and his home forever destroyed, the revengeful father started in pur- suit of the villain who had destroyed his peace 0x1 earth and dishonored his wife. He met and killed Pratt, a few years after, while in Arkansas, while on another mission, and not far distant from the once peaceful home he had ruined and caused to be deserted,
THS MASSACRE " PROPHESIED."
Oil learning the news a few weeks later, it was along in the spring of 1857, it is said that Brig- ham Young " prophesied" that the death of his apostle would be avenged iu the ratio of a 100 lives for one ; and many Mormons have been heard fco say that their religious faith would ex- onerate the" one who would kill the slayers of t'ueir proDhet, Joseph Smith, which occurred at Nauvoo, 111., June 27, 1844.
THE FIRST VICTIMS.
Iu the summer of 1857, two trains of emi- grants, from Arkansas and Missouri arrived at Salt Lake Cioy. These were the first to arrive in Utah after the killing of Apostle Pratt, and the avenging " prophecy" of President Brignam Young, They were en route to California. Of ihe 148 emigrants, 65 were men and boys capa- ble of bearing arms. Among the Arkausaus were several from the immediate neighborhood ot McLean, and one, it is charged, who assisted in the killing of Pratt. And the Missouri party, it is said, contained two of tue slayers of Joseph Smith, at Nauvoo, one of whom, on several oc casions, boastfully exhibited the pistol with which he did the shooting.
DEPARTURE OF THE EMIGRANTS FROM SALT LAKE.
This city, lying directly oa the southern and most accessible route to California, was the general headquarters for emigrant trains, where they would halt to rest thoir btock, replenish their supply of provisions, and frequently winter in seasons of extreme heavy snow- falls and im- passable roads. But instead of securing its usual hospitality and trade, the emigrants were peremptorily ordered to break up camp and leave Salt Lake. With scarce tea days'" pro- visions, themselves sore and disheartened, " and their teams almost exhausted, they meekly ana obedientlv resumed their journey of more than 600 miles over the waterless plains and hot, burning deserts.
THE STATED CAUSE.
The reasons given for this inhospitable and harsh treatment was that Utah had just declared war against the United states, and was prac- tically under martial law ; that Albert Sydney Johnson was just entering the territory with an army for their subjugation, and, consequently, citizens of the United States were considered aliens and enemies. This was undoubtedly one of the causes, but not the main one, for Joseph Smith, the prophet and founder of the church, and Pratt, the apostle, had been slain by Geu- tile hands, because of their religion, and the " prophecy" had been revealed aad the murder- ous fiat already issued,
STARVING IN THE MIDST OF PLENTY.
This was au unusually prosperous year in Utah, and the granaries along the thickly settled route of the emigrants were literally filled to bursting, yet they could not purchase any.
It was a matter of strange conjecture with the emigrants why she settlements along their iengthy route should act in concert and aii refuse them assistance aud hospitality. But thev never knew that the
" ANGEL OF DEATH," in the shape of Brigham Young's second coun- sellor, George A. Smith, general of the Nauvoo legion, preceded their train, preached to the Mormon settlers, and charged them, under pain of excommunication from the holy church, not to sell provisions to emigrants, or in anywise relieve their wants and necessities, no matter how great or painful. Aad this order was to them a sacred law, and held to be inviolable, j THE DEATH- WARRANT.
; It ia held that Smith was at cbat time also on a mission to Maj. John D. Lee, the Indian agent at Parowd. n, and carrying instruction:! trom " President" Youug to massacre the emigrants.
THE WALLED CITY OF PAROWAN, Near the border of Mexico, and 50 miles from M. cuntaiu Meadows, was the headquarters of the Indian agency of the territory. The Nau- voo legion, 3,700 strong, was also encamped at this place. The town was surrounded by an adobe wall about ten feet high, and was en- tered through four gates— one ou each side of the town. A few days since, in an interview with Col. Dame,—- one of the commanders of the
iegion at the massacre and now awaiting trial
THE IIMES correspondent was tola that the wall was built for protection against the In- dians. Bui it is well known that the Indiaus ww0 ail xneaoiv to She Mormons, received sup-
plies at their hands, and were their allies. Their leader, " Old Kauosh," a fhalf- breed, was created a bishop of the Mormon church for his red diocese.
THE COUNCIL OF WAR,
Before the emigrants reached Parowau, a council of war was held withiu the walled city, wherein all the plans and details of the mas- sacre were agreed upon— in accordance with in- structions from headquarters at Salt Lake " City.
The Nauvoo legion were directed to be in readiness immediately, with forty rounds of ammunition, and the militia of the territory, at that point, were officially ordered, by written order, to report for duty immediately. " ARMED AND EQUIPPED AS THE LAW DIRECTS."
Oil their approach, the outpost guards notified the emigrants that they could not enter the gates of the oity, and thoy were compelled to drrve around it. At that very moment the troops were formed in line, and receiving their arms and ammunitions for the commission of the bloody work they were ordered to do. The per- sons who planned the details of this massacre were Lieut. Get). D. H. Wells, commanding the Nauvoo legion, and who is now first privy councillor to Brigham Young ; Brig. Gen. Geo. A. Smith, the second privy councillor to Brig- ham, and the third member of the theocratic government; CoL W. H. Dame, now indicted4 and awaiting trial: Col. J. C. Haight, not in- dicted, and Maj. John D. Lee, who led the slaughter on the field of carnage, and who is also awaiting trial at Beaver, southern Utah. The place selected for the slaughter was Mountain Meadows, about 50 miles distant from Parowan, where the plans were nmnred in council, and 350 miles south of Salt Lake.
THE MOUNTAIN MEADOWS are about one and a half miles long by one mile wide, and form the base of a precipitous moun- tain, oval ia form, and gradually sloping to the level plain, north and west. The eastern end was walled in by a ragged mountain side, and at its southern end the meadows abruptly drop into a deep and rugged canyon below, darkened by dense under- growth aud wailed iu by high rock palisades. At this end of the meadows, overlooking the canyon, a grassy mound, about 150 feet long by 100 wide, almost abruptly rose to the height of about 60 feet, and here was found the only spring in the meadows. On this spot, about 30 feet from the spring, the emigrants camped. After prayers to their Almighty God for their deliverance from sickness and starvation, the emigrants sought relief from their worldly troubles ia the repos8 of sleep.
THE CARNAGE BEGINS.
ThC next morning, at the dawn of light, Mon- day, Sepi 7. 1857, they were awakened with horror at thJ roar and rattle of musketry. A few volleys, ana .' oe firing comparatively ceased, and when the smoKt bad cleared away it was found that six emigrants uSd been killed aud 13 wounded— all male*. Immediately . the entue camp was aroused, and with a remarkable pres- ence of mind the wagons were wheeled into line, and in a very short time sufficient earthwork was thrown up to form an almost impenetrable barricade. For six days and seven nights wa3 this siege kept up, and during this time only 15 emigrants were killed and about a dozen wounded. Only three Mormons were wouuded,— none killed. Of the emigrants, several of those who were killed and wounded had at the the time ontrusted them- selves without the barricade to obtain wal^ r from the adjacent spring, which was covered by Mormon sharpshooters. Nearly dying from thirst, a woman boldly ventured cut, thinking they would hardly harm her. She immediately was shot dead. Every effort to obtain water from the spring, either by day or by night, was m^ t by a volley of bullets from the ambushed sharpshooters. AH a last resort, as an appeal for mercy, two little girls, under six years of ago, were " clothed in pure white, and, hand- in- hand, they started to the spring. Almost immediate- ly they fell— their innocent utile bodies riddled with bullets.
A MERCIFUL APPEAL FOR AID.
Prayers for meiey having failed, and the cruel slaughter still continuing unabated, oa the even- ing of the fourth day the emigrants drew up a petition, addressed to the friends of humanity everywhere, stating their perilous situation, and asking for immediate assist. in. ee. Attached to this petition were the naLies of the emigrants, their place of nativity, age; occupation, religion, and names of the society orders of which they were members. The list 01 Kilkd and wounded was also included.
VOLUNTEERS TO DEATH.
It was proposed to send this document to California— about 200 miles distant— the nearest place from whence aid could bo expected. Three emigrants, whose bravery is honored, though their names are uhknowu, volaafceored so under- take the perilous journey. That night, mounted on the swiftest horses in the camp, they " run the blockade," aud on the wings of the wind aped 011 their journey of hope and safety.
Exhausted, ftlmon^^ bOSii and acutely suf- fering from extreme tairsfc, tne emigrant*, on the seventh day of the siege, entertained terms of capitulation, and thus virtually signed their own " death warrants. An emigrant train was espied in the distance, bearing a white flag— the symbol of truth. Tne women and children cried for joy, and the emigrants believed their deliverance and safety was at hand— rescue had come from an unknown aud unexpected source. It was but a dccoy.
The emigrants of course ceased firing, and a delegation was sent out to meet their supposed friends— who proved So be no other than " Ma- jor" John D. Lee, and a few United States mili- tia officers, with ihe Nauvoo le- gion in the distance, flying tne American flag. Seeing ones more the stars and stripes, and knowing that Brigham Young was governor of the_ territory, and commander of the militia, notwithstanding the presence of Lee, the emigrants suspected no treachery and felt that their hour of delivery from the mur- derous siege by the li Indians" was at hand.
With sympathetic tears Lee listened to their sufferings, and offered ihem ptotection from the " Indians" if possible, if they would con- tinue in taeir journey and promise not to fur- ther molest the Indiana. Of course, this offer was gladly accepted by the defenseless em- igrants. Lee retired from the camp, under the pretence of holding a council with the Indians. He soon returned, again bearing aloft the white flag, and informed the emigrants the Indians were very loth to make aay terms of peace, but finally oonsented to thoir departure, if the emigrants would sur- render their arms. Foolishly they gave to their executioners their rifles, revolvers, and ammuni- tion, and willingly marched out of their only place of safety, to be mercilessly shot down like oattle in a slaughter- pen. About fifty armed militia, under John D. Lee, was drawn up as a guard of safety, at the entrance of the emigrants' camp. Between this guard of soldiers, facing in open rank, the now unarmed men marched out from behind their defenses, the women came next, and the children followed lastly. The separation of the men and women was a " precon- certed arrangement m.'. de by their captors, in order to better carry out their fiendish designs. The
PROCESSION OF DEATH had reached only about one hundred yards when it was halted, and John D. Lee, an officer under the United States aovernmeai, and a major of the territorial militia, gave the order,
" MAKE READY, AIM, FIRE !"' which was simultaneously repeated by the other officers down the line. With agonizing shrieks aad piteous appeals to heaven for morcv, men, women and children, in all parts of the " huddled group, fell bleeding to the earth, pierced with bullets ; thick as hail the leaden missiles poured in upon them— gray- haired sires, with uplifted hands, appealing to the throne of grace, fell dead across the bodies of their murdered sons and. daughters; defenseless women, crazed with fear, clinging around their unarmed husbands and fathers for protection, were ruthlessly shot down, despite their heartrending cries, and, in several instances, while suppliaatly kneeling at the feet of their assassins, aad a few were pub- licly debauched, and immediately after killed upon the dishonored spot; little children eliag- icg to their mothers' skirts, were forcibly taken from them and their throats cut, amid their in- nocent cries to their " mammas" for safety ; and babes were saatcbed from the maternal breast, and their brains dashed out against the wagon- wheels.
After about three hours bloody work, the dreadful carnage ceased, aad 112 emigrants lay dead and dying upon the field, within a circum- ference of 100 feet— about oO were piled one upon another within a square space of 30 feet. The wounded and dying were relieved of their sufferings by being shot, stabbed, or beheaded with the " battle- axes of the Lord," the favor- ite war weapon of the Mormons. Of Wis
ONE HUNDRED Tn 2LVS MASSACRED fifty ware men acd boys— not one being spared who was able to bear anna. The others were women, little children, and a few babes. Por tome unaccountable reason, probably disgusted with their bloody and inhuman work, the* lives of 17 children were spared. Their ages range from four to thirteen years. THE FATE OF THE VOLUNTEER COURIEBS.
The three brave men, who escaped the vigil of the guards on the night of the fourth day o~ f the siege, bound for California for aid and relief from tne besiegers, and bearing with them the paper containing tho names, occupation, na- tivity, etc., of the doomed emigrants, were the next day overtakes, by the Mormon Indian allies, iwf wero killed outright, and the other after b « ing horrib^ snuulated. was burasd at
a stake. Thus perished the last remaining man of that emigrant train— 55 men iu all.
THE FIRST VICTIM was a young man named William Aden, from Arkansas. The day before the massacre he left the camp in quest of supplies. While watering his horse in a stream, in company with another emigrant, seven miles from their camp, they were overtaken by the notorious Mormon bishop, Bill Stewart, and a young boy. Stewart covered Aden with a revolver, and bade the timid boy draw a bead on the other emigrant. Stewart Killed his man, but the frightened boy was erring in bis aim and his intended victim escaped to the tram. This first victim, tie three couriers, and tne 15 killed during the siege, comprise the total of 131 murdered emigrants— 59 males and 72 fe- males. The remaining 17 children that were spared on the field of death, is all that is left of the one hundred and forty- eight.
THE FATE OF THE CHILDREN,
The children were gathered up and taken to the homes of the murderers of thoir fathers and mothers, many of whom were named by their Mormon oaptors— being too young to Icuow or tell their own or their parents' names. About one year after, Dr. Porney, the Indian agent, who succeeded Brigham Young, with two com- panies cf TJ. 2. bSGSto^ iiic r* 5ighbor- Tiood for fifty miles around the scene oi iuS massacre, and succeeded in finding seventeen— believed to be all that was spared. Oa learning of their whereabouts, a few of the children were returned to their neaiest relations in Missouri and Arkansas, and several yet remain iu this territory and Califor- nia, and will attend the forthcoming trial as witnesses. Though very young, indeed, it is thought that, many important facts can be proven by these three youthful witnesses. The eldest is a girl of thirteen, who afterward says she frequently saw the wives of Lee and Haight wearing the jewels and dresses of her murdered mother. One boy, aged nine, named John Colvin, now living in Arkansas, saw Lee kill his father, and another boy recollected dis- tinctly of seeing his father, mother, grandfather, aad grandmother all killed at once, and lying in one heap.
WRITTEN EVIDENCE DESTROYED.
An Indian chief named Jackson, who mur- dered the first of the three couriers en route fco California, found on the person of his victim the paper giving the names, condition, etc., of tho emigrants. He gave the papei to a Mormon, who, on showing it to Lee, tho latter immedi- ately snatched it aad tore it fco shreds. To this t « . et the honest old Mormon is willing to testify oa fcrli. 4. He is evidently familiar wish the con- tents of she cJA » tioyed ' paper, as he was heard frequently to remark, " 1 if the Maaons
and Odd Fellows knew how many CI iiiair brethren were slain they would no longer let the accursed Mormons go unpunished."
NOT AN INDIAN MASSACRE.
This crime is charged to the Indiaus. Indian warfare is different from any other— they inva- riably scalp their victims. " Of the 127 slain, not ono bore the evidence of being scalped. Even could this strong circumstantial evidence be re- futed, and the Indians proven to have done the bloody work, the fact- that the Mormons and In- dians were, allies, and their chief being a Mor- mon bishop, and the further undisputed fact that Lee, Haight, and Dame, Mormon elders, were on the ground at the time and ia command of the Nauvoo legion, clearly establishes the in- direct if not direct connection of the Mormon olmrch and its followers with this horrible and unjustifiable wholesale murder.
THE SPOILS OF WAR.
The night following the boody day, the fresh- bleeding corpses were stripped of their clothing and valuables, aad left stark naked on th- s now deserted field, a prey to vultures and ravenous animalb. With the exception of a few blankets, etc., giveu the Indians, the blood- stained arti- cles were all deposited in the " Tithing office," at Cedar City— about 20 miles distant. The wagons, stock, books, etc., of the dead emigrants were also brought to this office and a few days after sold at public auction— Bishop John M. Higbee acting as auctioneer. The" auctioneer took especial pains to tear the blood stains and names of the murdered owners from the books ar « d other articles before ottering them to ihe highest bidder. There being little money iu the country, the articles were sold on a credit until the next harvesc, to be paid in wheat. A few paid their wheat into the " Tithing office," which, of course, reverted to the church. But a majority never paid, as in the following spring
Johnson's army entered Utah, marching on Salt Lake City, when the entire vailey of Utah, from Salt Lake to the southern extremity of the ter- ritory, over 300 miles in extent, was immediate- ly deserted by the frightened Mormons ; leaving their lands, nome:;, and fields ot waving grain to devastation and rum. Their objective poiafc was Mexico, but before reaching which country, however, the proclamation of President James Buchanan giving amnesty to the Mormons for all past political offences was received, and they returned to the', abandoned homes.
THE BURIAL OF THE DEAD.
Three or four weeks after this memorable
Black Sunday," the same good old Mormon from whom Lee snatched and tore up the paper containing the names of the emigrant ® , visited the desolate aad now stenched field of carnage. He gathered np the scattered bones and lacera- ted fragments of flesh, and buried them in the very iutrenchment the emigrants had dug for their own defense. All honor to this brave old Mormon, in thus expressing his charity to the dead foes of his religion, by giving their remains a Christian burial as tho risk cf his life. Though, for politic reasons, known to but few, when the proceedings of this trial are pub- lished. the world will karn the name of this o' Good Samaritan."
A SECOND BURIAL.
The ravenous wolves soon dug through the dirt loosely scattered over the remains of the emi- grants, and, after devouring the flesh, scattered the bones over the meadows, where they lay bleaching in the summer's sun, untii a detail oi soldiers, under command of Brig. Go a. Carlton, gathered them up and agaiu buried them. " VENGEANCE IS MINE, I WILL REPAY,
SAIT1I THE LORD !"
After this burial, oa the very spot watered by their blood, the soldiers gathered stones from the adjacen bids, and over their few remains erected an oval monument, about tour feet high, ancl twenty feet long by aDout six feet wide. On its summit a plain wooden cross was erected, bearing the inscription : Vengeance is Mine, I will repay saith the Lord."
THE REVENGEFUL ICONOCLASTS.
A few weeks later the stones were scattered over the meadows, and the cross ana inscription torn down. The soldiers rebuilt the monument, and again reared on its summit the cross. Deal- ing those burning words of heavenly vengeance.
A few months later Brigham Young and his secretary were driving by this lonely sepulchre, and on reading the words oa the cross acknowl- edged his own gniii by ordering his secretary to tear down the inscription, and substituting :* " VENGEANCE IS MINE, AND I HAVE HAD IT."— BRIGHAM YOUNG.
This insulting and sacrilegious iuscriptiou was soon torn down and destroyed, butt the monu- ment of stones still remains to mark the place of the commissi oa of- one of the most cowardly, treacherous and brutal deeds aver perpetrated by msn, civilized or savage,
THE CRIMINALS, i Col. W. H. Dame and Maj. John D. Leg, who were both commanding troops on the day of the . massacre, are the only participants now under arrest and waiting trial. As many as eight or iea others have been indicted, but remain uncau- tured despite the exertions of the authorities. Lee is about 60 years of age, aud came to this country in 1850, from Illinois. At oresent his health is rapidly failing, aud he says he fears not the result of the trial, as his life cannot be prolonged but a few years, evaa in case of ac- quittal.
Dame is a New Hampshire farmer, 46 years of age, and a religious fanatic. Ia a recent conversation with a TIMES correspondent he emphatically denied . his guilt, and, in the name of heaven, denied that the church and " Presi- dent" Young were in any many connected with the horrible affair.
Lee and Dame were indicted last October, and arrested a few weeks after. Dame made no effort to escape, hut was arrested peaceably in his own house, at Parowan. Anticipating his arrest, Loo, for several years, has been living in a swamp several miles from Parowau in an old fort. Becoming emboldened, one day he visited his family at hii farm near by. On suddenly seeing the of- ficers approach he ran into the yard and
HID IN A CHICKEN COOP. He was captured and taken to Beaver City, where he has been confined ever since in the military camp. Dame was brought to this city and C- G"!:::^ ia the territorial penitentiary un- til a few days ago, when ho was taken to Beaver, where the trial is to be held in a few day.
The recital of the events of fchis massacre sounds more like the Dloody deeds of St. Barth- olomew's day and the wholesale butcheries in tha days of the Beformation and " good Queen Bes3," than a piobable occurrence ia this age. Panciful romancista have indulged considerable senoiment about the freedom of conscience, the exercise of religions belief, the persecutioas of the early Mormons, their expulsion and flight fr< 5Ld the states, and their long and tedious jour- ney to ihtir New Zion on the far- western con- fines of civilisation, in mitigation of thoir many crimes committeu the name of their religion. Bub no matter what may Det- n their wrongs, real or imaginary, that book ..^" cm whence they pretend to found their faith plainly C* « * chcs that 44 Veussauce ia nune, and I will repay! sa^ Lord." The Mormon version is, " Vengeance is mine, and I have had it— Brigham Young."
3. M. S.
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