knowledge transfer; exploitation of organizational capabilities; templates; replication
This paper is a direct empirical examination of the fundamental claim that use of templates enhances the effectiveness of knowledge transfer. We explore the effect of template use through an eight-year, in-depth field investigation of Rank Xerox (now Xerox Europe). The field investigation covers three sequential transfer efforts in 15 western European countries. The investigation reveals a naturally occurring, repeated-treatment quasi experiment that allows us to test the hypothesis that the use of templates enhances the effectiveness of knowledge transfer. ""Observation"" in this experiment measure the extent of adoption and performance of the practice at the recipient units. The ""treatment"" is the use of a template during the transfer.