problems; psychologism; instructional technology; theories; practices; american
Note: This is not the final draft of the article. The centrality of psychology in the field of instructional technology has never been comprehensively questioned; most instructional technologists have assumed that (behaviorist, cognitivist, constructivist, or another) psychology is the natural foundation for education and thus for instructional technology. The driving question of this article is: What are the problems of psychologism as found in the theories and practices of instructional technology? We present a brief genealogy of American instructional technology in relation to the influence of psychology; review critical psychology and discuss some problems of psychologism focusing on positivism, metaphysics, ecology and culture, and power; and provide a hermeneutical framework for the theory and practice of instructional technology.