We propose a compact and efficient grating coupler for vertical coupling between optical fibers and planar waveguides. A grating with a parallelogram shape is designed to be etched through the entire high-index waveguide core. The coupler is optimized using a microgenetic algorithm coupled with a two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method. Simulations show that up to 75.8% coupling efficiency can be obtained between a single-mode fiber and a 240-nm-thick silicon-on-insulator planar waveguide.
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