Jones matrix; Mueller matrix; Stokes parameters; polarimetry; polarization; radiometry;
The growing importance of polarimetric radiometers has led to the need for a detailed theory for Stokes antenna temperatures. In this paper, we provide a full Stokes vector formulation of an antenna temperature that accounts for the entire antenna pattern, which includes polarization mixing in the main-beam and sidelobe effects. To derive the Stokes antenna temperatures, we follow the conventional methods in the Earth remote sensing literature while relying on a coherency algebra approach from radio astronomy. Connections and parallels to the conventional approaches are noted along the way. We also introduce generalizations of beam efficiency and cross polarization for use with polarimetric radiometers. These provide important metrics in the design of future systems.
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